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Timber Sales Manchester | Timber Cladding Manchester

Timber Decking in Manchester

The benefits of buying timber decking and cladding from stock
Timber decking and cladding are becoming increasingly common in most homes in the contemporary world. Timber adds sophistication and warmth to anything that it is made of or used on. It’s also lightweight and simple to carve, which makes it easy to use for many building activities.

However, with so many timber options out there, it can be hard to decide which one to choose.

At Timber Focus, we are here to not only provide the finest timber for decking and cladding but also to guide you on the options that are available to you.

Why buy timber from stock?

Perhaps the top reason you should consider buying timber for decking and cladding from stock has to be the wide variety that is available. Some of the timber available include softwoods, hardwoods, fire retardant treated timber, recycled wood, painted cladding, charred burnt sertiwood dragonwood, Siberian larch, black painted featheredge, essex barn, dutch barn cladding and wood plastic. These are manufactured with the highest quality standards from the EU.

When you buy from stock, you also benefit from excellent lead times – just 10 days for Siberian Larch cladding and standard mouldings or decking. Timber cladding and decking purchased from stock can also be tailored to suit customer requirements, with Timber Focus offering special sizes, profiles and packages to suit your needs.

Environmental conservation is important, which is why all our products bought from stock are certified as standard and safe for your building needs.

Our company has received independent third party certifications, such as the FSC and PEFC, for the timber that is used in decking and cladding.

Trust Timber Focus today

At Timber Focus, we have different high-quality timber options that you can choose from. If you’re having trouble choosing the product that is right for you, we are here to help. Our staff are highly trained regarding timber decking and cladding and are ready to guide you through the options we have in stock.

The beauty of coloured wood cladding
Many homeowners are now opting for coloured timber cladding instead of natural timber cladding. The beauty of this is that you still get the beautiful feel and texture of wood, but it can be personalised for your particular space, both inside and outside the home. Below we explore the beauty of coloured wood cladding and how you can use it in your home and garden.

The hallway

Dark wood cladding has long been the favoured choice in hallways, but now this cladding is being given a new lease of life. Swap that dark oak for the new bleached timber cladding that is colour stained to open up the hallway. Favoured colours are whites, pale blues and mint greens.

Living room

You can use wooden cladding in your living room, no matter what size you have. For the smaller living room opt for wooden cladding on a feature wall that is painted in soft cream or oatmeal. Wooden cladding can be used on several walls in the large living room, and here you can be bold with rustic reds and chocolate brown.

Kitchen

Wooden cladding works so well in the farmhouse kitchen and contemporary kitchen. The new fire retardant wooden cladding means that it is safe to use in this room. White cladding will give a crisp and clear look to the room while helping to open up the space, while a more traditional brown will blend effortlessly with that rustic style kitchen.

Outside the home

Exterior cladding also comes in a range of different colours that can completely transform your outside space. When used on the rear of your property you can use sage green to create a calming and natural space in which to sit and relax. Rustic browns and cream also work incredibly well outside.

To learn more about our timber cladding range,sertiwood dragonwood charred, Siberian larch, rustic, denim, white wax including fire retardant cladding, then please do browse our website today and get in touch with us.

The beauty of coloured wood decking
If you are considering building a deck in your garden, then you should know that coloured decks are incredibly popular and can help personalise your outdoor space. Below we share some coloured deck ideas with you.

Dark or light grey

Grey is such a popular colour choice for timber decks as it’s fresh, modern and works with both warm and cool colour combinations. If you have young children it’s best to opt for a darker grey as this will hide any obvious marks. Light grey is a good way to bring a hint of additional light to the garden. Light grey can also make a small garden appear much bigger.

Dark blue

A dark blue timber deck is a playful twist on the traditional wooden deck. Dark blue works so well in cottage style gardens and with cream or beige garden furniture. Blue decking also looks fabulous when teamed with colourful flowers, especially pink or purple in colour. Choose blue if you want to add a pop of colour.

Green

Green is the great all-rounder, as it can be used in any style of home, both modern and traditional. There are also so many different green tones to choose from, including sage green, fresh mint, and forest green. What you choose depends on your own personal taste.

Chocolate brown

Opt for a rich chocolate brown, or black deck when you have a small decking area with beautiful colourful plants. These colours will work with any style of garden but may be overpowering when used for a large deck.

Here at Timber Focus, we have a wide selection of coloured timber decking to suit all budgets and garden needs. To learn more browse our website today.

When is it best to use timber decking?
Timber decking is a highly attractive way of increasing the usable space in your garden. Enjoying the summer sun, firing up a BBQ, or drinks on warm evenings – everything is made better with attractive timber decking. But when is timber decking the best choice for you?

Understanding timber decking

To understand when timber decking is best used, it’s important to know what the benefits and drawbacks of timber as a decking material are. Of course a clear benefit is that timber is a beautiful, sustainable, and highly versatile material to make decking out of.

Being a natural material, however, makes timber prone to alteration over time given certain circumstances. Excess heat, moisture, and humidity, for example, can cause negative effects in timber decking – particularly if it’s not treated properly.

With excess heat, timber used in decking can be prone to fading and cracking. This not only makes it lose some of its natural aesthetic appeal, but it might lead it to become structurally unstable. Moisture and humidity can cause wood to expand, which again may compromise the stability of your decking.

When is timber best?

With this information, it’s clear to understand that timber is your ideal choice if you live in an area that benefits from comparatively stable weather patterns. If you live somewhere prone to unusually hot, dry summers or cold, wet winters then timber decking might not be the ideal solution.

Don’t take this to mean that timber is fragile as a material, however. When it’s properly treated and maintained on an ongoing basis, timber decking is a reliable and beautiful addition to any garden.

Another consideration you can make is where the decking is going to be placed in your garden. For example, if your decking is going somewhere with lots of natural shade and shelter, timber decking is ideal.

When is it best to use timber cladding?
Timber is always a popular cladding material, as it looks beautiful and offers many benefits. But are there certain circumstances where timber cladding is best used? Are there times you should avoid using timber cladding?

What do you need to consider?

Timber is a highly versatile and easy to work with material, so the type of project you’re using it for isn’t much of a concern. Timber can be used on small or large properties and can be easily shaped to suit your needs.

The issue with timber cladding, as opposed to other cladding materials, such as steel or concrete, is that it’s a natural material. Natural materials, under certain circumstances, can be prone to changing and degrading over time if not properly cared for.

The two main enemies of timber as a cladding material are excess heat and moisture. Heat can cause the timber to become dry and brittle, and at the very least lose some of its natural aesthetic appeal. Excess moisture and humidity in the air can cause wood to warp.

So when is timber cladding best?

Timber cladding is best used, then, in areas which have relatively stable weather patterns. If you live in a climate that is prone to experiencing regular peaks in heat or excess rain and humidity, timber cladding might not be the best option for you. Timber is a very durable cladding material, but it has its limits.

Wherever you choose to use timber cladding, you should always make sure that it’s properly varnished and treated to keep it as resistant to the elements as possible. Your timber cladding should be regularly checked to ensure it’s in good structural condition, and any repairs or further treatments seen to as soon as possible.

Contact Timberfocus for more information about when timber is the best choice for your cladding.

Using wood for cladding inside buildings
Timber is often used for cladding the exteriors of buildings, and it’s a purpose that it’s suited to very well indeed. However, timber also makes a great choice for interior cladding. Here are just a few reasons why.

It’s versatile

When you’re cladding the interior of any building, versatility is a paramount concern. This is where timber makes an excellent choice of material – it’s lightweight and easy to shape in any number of ways. So, however you choose to have the interior of your property decorated, timber will be able to facilitate it. That it’s lightweight and ease to work with also minimises the necessary time and labour, which ultimately makes any cladding projects that much more affordable.

It’s sustainable

Another key aspect of timber as a material is that it’s highly sustainable, which makes it the perfect choice for the more ecologically conscious. When sourced from responsible suppliers, it’s a highly sustainable material compared to other cladding options. Furthermore, any offcuts can also be put to use as sawdust and chippings and so on. Similarly, when you decide to update or change your cladding, the wood that has been used can be completely recycled.

It’s beautiful

Practicality matters when you’re choosing a material to clad the interior of your property – but ultimately you want something that’s going to look good too. Timber fits the bill perfectly, as it caters to all manner of tastes. With so many species, colours, hues, tones, and grades available, you’re sure to find the timber that perfectly matches the rest of your interior decoration. It’s also comparatively easy to live with – it’s durable and easy to keep clean.

If you have any further questions about why timber could be the perfect choice of cladding in your property, contact Timberfocus today for more help and guidance.

Why do people like pre-painted cladding?
If you’re looking for a material to clad the exterior of your house, pre-painted timber cladding makes an excellent and versatile choice. But what are the benefits of pre-painted cladding?

Avoid awkward paint jobs

One of the most obvious benefits is that using cladding that has already been painted means you will avoid messy, costly and awkward painting jobs once your cladding has been fixed to your house exterior.

A factory setting provides the ideal conditions for applying primer and paint in the right quantity and at the correct temperature. Having the right equipment to apply the paint means that its finish is precise, even and to an exceptionally high standard.

This also means that you don’t have to worry about the weather and the risk of your exterior painting being called off because of adverse conditions.

Enjoy superior protection

Your cladding is protected straight away, giving you instant protection against the harsh winter elements or damaging summer sun, so your cladding can be fitted at any time of year, come rain or shine.

One of the most exciting things about pre-painted cladding is that you can select the colour that works best for your property and its environment. With a whole range of colours to choose from – from a natural look to complement your property’s surroundings to fresh, vibrant hues – you can be sure that your cladding will reflect your unique personal style.

You can also be safe in the knowledge that the colour you choose will look exactly as you expect, something that isn’t always possible when deciding between paint samples.

Fire retardant and straightforward pricing
For the ultimate in safety, pre-painted cladding can also be treated with fire retardant materials.

Finally, another great advantage is that you will know exactly what price to expect. When painting is undertaken on site, labour costs can vary from the original quote, especially if your project is delayed due to bad weather conditions.

Timber Focus is a leading supplier of pre-painted cladding, providing a wide range of premium timber products in exciting colours to suit your taste and lifestyle, including decking.

Why do people like grey cladding?
Timber cladding has become a popular design feature in recent years. At one time, it was something that you would usually only spot on rural houses or garden sheds, but nowadays it’s being used to cover the exterior walls of all kinds of properties – from new builds to refurbished homes.

It also seems that, as the trend for cladded homes grows, one particular colour choice is proving to be the most popular among customers. That colour is grey.

But why has it become the preferred option of homeowners and property developers?

1. Fashion

Over the past decade, cool grey tones have become the neutral colour of choice among fashionistas and interior designers, and it’s a trend that has started to have an impact on how we decorate the outside of our homes. As well as grey cladding, there has also been a rise in the number of homeowners opting for grey window frames and front doors.

2. Practicality

Grey cladding works on many house styles because it usually blends in better with its surroundings than other colours do. Also, because the timber used for cladding tends to turn grey over time thanks to the effects of weathering, it is less noticeable if it hasn’t been painted in a while. Additionally, you are less likely to notice dirt or fading than you would if you opted for other neutral cladding colours such as white or cream.

3. Versatility

Grey cladding works well on many different styles of building. Plus, as there are so many different shades available, it’s easy to find one that suits the aesthetic of your home. A light grey cladding, for example, would blend in well with a rustic, stone-structure building in a rural setting. Darker shades of grey, however, can provide a contemporary finish to an urban townhouse.

Contact Timberfocus today to find out more about grey cladding options.

Is Timber Cladding expensive?
Timber cladding is always a popular choice when it comes to cladding – but will your budget be able to stretch to it?

There’s no simple answer to whether timber cladding is expensive or not. For a better understanding, let’s take a look at some of the things that will determine the cost of your timber cladding.

The scale of the project

Ultimately the cost is going to come down to how much timber you’re actually going to need, so it’s first best to determine the scale of the cladding required. A large property will require much more wood, naturally, than a smaller one, so it is going to be more expensive. The good thing about wood as a material, however, is that there is little wastage when cladding and offcuts can be used elsewhere.

The quality of the wood

Not all woods are created equally, and depending on the species you choose, the cost will vary. Similarly, there are different finishing and quality options to consider. For example, unvarnished wood that has imperfections in it, such as knots, will be considerably cheaper than finished wood with minimal imperfections. This is a key consideration in how much you’re going to spend on timber cladding.

Factor the installation

Timber cladding is much easier to work with than other materials such as concrete and steel, which makes it a more affordable choice. It’s important, however, to make sure the work is still performed by an experienced tradesman if you’re going to have the best possible results. Remember, also, that if you want your timber cladding to last, you’re going to have to keep it treated and properly maintained – consider these costs.

There’s no simple answer to the question of “is timber cladding expensive?” – but, depending on your needs and budget, it can certainly be more affordable than other cladding options.

Is timber decking expensive?
Timber decking is a cost-effective alternative to a patio. It’s generally cheaper per square metre than concrete paving slabs and is significantly less expensive than other materials like natural stone.

How much does timber decking cost?

The cost will depend on which wood you prefer to use. Standard decking boards are usually made from pine and cost around £4-7 each.

They’ll cost slightly more if you opt for finishes such as anti-slip coating. Although pine is durable, it does need to be treated regularly and, as it’s a soft wood, it’s more prone to splitting. If you would prefer decking that requires less maintenance, it might be worth investing in hardwood boards. You can expect to pay at least double the price you would for pine boards, but the wood can be left untreated, which means less time and money spent on installation and painting.

Is it expensive to install?

One of the benefits of timber decking is that it generally takes less time to install than a patio.

Provided you make adequate provisions for drainage and ventilation, the decking frame can be laid directly onto the ground, or on top of concrete slabs. This means a much quicker installation time compared to a patio, which requires a lot of digging and preparation before the ground is ready. This can potentially save you money if you’re paying a tradesperson by the day.

How much does it cost to maintain decking?

Decking timber, particularly if it’s made from softwood, needs to be treated regularly to prolong its lifespan. However, the annual maintenance costs are relatively low. If you plan to treat the wood once a year, you can expect to pay between £15 and £20 for a 2.5l tin of decking oil, which usually covers an area of about 20 square meters.

What is Siberian larch wood?
Siberian larch wood (Larix Sibirica), not to be confused with the larch in Western Europe, first came to the fore during the Venice Golden Age. At the time, construction workers required materials that were robust and long-lasting. In their course of trading with the Scythians, they opted for the Siberian larch, which ended up being at the centre of the majority of the piles that Venice City was built on.

In the coming years, people would be amazed by its qualities. Though a soft wood, its versatility and durability were quite outstanding. Tests were carried out on Siberian larch in 1827, and the results were excellent.

The piles were found to have been hardened to the qualities of rock. Even the technology and machinery available to the lumbering industry at the time could not be used to cut it.

Over the years, its resinous versatility and hard-wearing qualities have made it popular in the construction industry. Thanks to the attributes of this wood, it has been used for exterior cladding, interior panelling, joinery, decking as well as building yachts and small boats, among other uses.

In recent years, it has gained a reputation as the preferred choice in the UK for decking. It is resistant to decay and water and offers extreme longevity thanks to its very high density and unique composition of resins. Also, it doesn’t require additional treatment and can be installed in its natural state, making it cheaper to maintain.

Then there is its aesthetic beauty.

It has a golden-yellow colour similar to pine, but as it weathers the colour changes to silver-grey and there’s minimal reactivity. Due to this, the weathering occurs evenly. Put all these factors together, and you have durable and beautiful wood to use for your decking.

Why timber decking?
Timber decking is always a popular choice for gardens all over the world – but why? Here are just a few key reasons why you should consider timber decking.

Versatility

Wood is a very versatile material to work with – it can be cut and shaped into all manner of designs with relative ease, which makes it the ideal material if you want to make a real statement with your decking. It means truly unique decking designs are made that much easier. It’s also relatively lightweight and easy to work with, which means that installation should be quick.

Sustainability

Timber is, of course, a sustainable choice of decking material, provided it’s sourced from the right growers. This makes it highly ecologically friendly, which is always going to make it a popular choice. All wood by-products, such as sawdust, chippings, etc, can also be used. When the lifespan of your decking has come to an end, the wood can be completely recycled or responsibly disposed of.

Decoration

Timber decking is popular because, quite simply, it looks good. Depending on the species of wood you choose, you can have some truly stunning decking on which to enjoy parties, BBQs, and drinks on summer evenings. If you don’t want to keep the natural wood hues, you can also have timber decking painted in a range of colours with relative ease and minimal effort.

Timber decking is always going to be a popular choice because of its affordability, versatility, and its durability – provided you treat it properly, you can expect to enjoy several years of service from your timber decking. It’s always a wise investment to make sure your timber decking is properly treated, to offer the best resistance from the heat and moisture of the elements.

For more information about timber decking, contact Timberfocus today.

Why Timber Cladding?
Timber is a consistently popular choice of material when it comes to cladding. But, what is it about timber that makes it such a popular and enduring choice? Here are just a few key reasons.

It’s easy to install

Timber cladding is relatively easy and quick to install, thanks to its light weight. The quicker and easier the installation, the less labour is required, which ultimately makes it cheaper.

It’s durable

Timber makes for a durable cladding choice as, providing it’s appropriately maintained on a regular basis, it can last very well for several years. Damage to your home is minimised due to its resistance to scratching, chips, and fire when properly treated.

It offers energy efficiency

Timber is great for insulation thanks to its relatively low thermal conductivity, especially when compared to concrete and steel. This means your home will lose less heat, lowering your energy bills, while remaining a sustainable material.

It’s highly versatile

Timber is an easy material to work with, which means it can be shaped and cut however you want it to be. This makes it suitable for all sizes and scales of building. It’s easy to decorate with too, as you can choose to paint it or leave it with its natural colour.

Sustainability in action

Wood is a natural resource which, provided it’s sourced from responsible sources, is infinitely sustainable. Compared to other cladding materials, this makes it an environmentally friendly choice. It’s also recyclable when it’s time to replace the cladding.

These are just some of the reasons that timber cladding makes such an enduringly popular choice. It’s affordable, versatile, and highly sustainable – making it a go-to choice of cladding for all manner of projects. For more information about why timber cladding could be right for you, just contact Timberfocus.

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T H E R M O W O O D = W O O D + B A K I N G + S T E A M W O O D W O R K I N G W I T H S T Y L E

Timber Focus Supplies a number of species that have been thermally modified to enhance their durability and aesthetics with the use of Heat – Thermowoods. We are leading thermowood suppliers to merchants, construction and joinery companies. We have a large customer base for modular and garden building manufacturers. We supply thermowood or heat treated timber in various forms of decking, cladding (TGV, PMV, Shiplap) and sawn timber.

We supply thermowood redwood and thermowood Ayous which is a clear and durable alternative species for western red cedar. Please contact us for samples

Thermowood  or thermal treatment is a wood modification method of using heat / high temperatures and steam to increase the number of properties e.g  the durability against wood destroying fungi, dimensional stability and aesthetic appearance of timber products.

It is considered an environmentally friendly way of wood treatment as no chemicals are added during this process. The level and intensity of heat determine the number of properties e.g the biological durability level against wood destroying organisms e.g fungi of the timber, the tone/shade of the wood and the stability and helping determine the appropriate application of the thermally modified timber.

Using heat for Thermal Modification has been known to have existed since the Viking period but has recently become very popular with large-scale commercial production plants being set up in the last 10-15 years across the globe mainly in Scandinavia and Estonia.

The process is used to enhance the durability, stability of timber products for a number of applications e.g decking boards, floorings, garden decking,  timber cladding, wood shingles saunas, hot tubs for both internal and external applications. We have seen the rise in hardwoods and more clear high-quality thermowoods being commercially readily available. There has been the rise of factory finished prepainted and fire retardant treated thermowoods or thermally treated timber.

Some of the leading brands of thermal modification include thermowood D, thermowood S, Thermory, Lunawood, Abodo Vulcan.A number of major producers such as Thermory and VTT /YTI in cooperation with the Finnish wood product industry have developed industrial scale heat-treatment process for wood. The ThermoWood process developed by VTT is licensed to the members of the International Thermowood Association.

Not all reputable brands of thermal modified wood or thermowood prioducts are produced by members of the the thermowood assocaiton ,we have some of the largest quality brands thermo treated timber alone organsiations. These independent products have produced some of the most diverse and innovative  thermal treated timber products with some of the highest certifcation standards and test data with  their perfromance verified by independent test laboratories.

Common Thermowood Species

Species of thermal  or heat treated wood we supply  include;

Ayous, Frake pine (Pinus sylvestris), spruce (Picea abies), birch (Betula pendula), and aspen (Populus tremula). In addition, some experience has been gained in the treatment of Radiata pine (Pinus radiata), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), larch (Larix sibirica), alder (Alnus glutinosa), beech (Fagus silvativa), and eucalyptus.

Heat treatment is can be undertaken on a number of species, but every species needs to be treated individually to its specific program to get the correct results and performance.

There are differences between wood species in terms of annual growth, wood cells, wood pores, the num ber of chemical components, etc. Moreover, different wood species have different  characteristics and properties e.g fibre length properties:  softwoods feature a wide distribution in fibre length compared with hardwoods which on average have much shorter fibre length and less variance. Download PDF

Thermowood Environmental Aspects

ThermoWood or thermal modified / heat treated timber is a natural wood product without any chemicals additives. ThermoWood waste can be handled as with any other untreated wood waste. The material is bio-degradable and can be disposed of at the end of its service life by either burning or placing into the normal waste system. In most cases energy needed for the ThermoWood process is produced by burning wood biomass fuels. Additional energy is provided with solutions such as natural gas. Energy is needed mainly for drying, which accounts for 80 percent of the heat energy used. The production of ThermoWood consumes about the same amount of electricity as is used in normal kiln drying of sawn timber. Most of the large-scale producers are in Europe and will tend to supply timber that is Certified either FSC or PEFC and conforming to the EUTR it is always important to check environmental certification.

Thermowood Process

Wood Moisture Content

Treatment can be undertaken with either green or dried wood. In any case, the wood is dried until absolutely dry in the first phase of the treatment. Drying is the longest phase in the heat-treatment process. Green wood contains water in two forms: free water in cell lumens and bound water in cell walls. During drying, some of the water in the cell lumens travels via capillaries in the direction of the grain due to surface tension and steam pressure differences. If the pores between one cell lumen and another enable its free travel, water can travel several meters. Otherwise, capillary drying reaches only a few cells from the ends of the wood. The great majority of the water is removed by diffusion through the cell walls in the form of steam. This occurs through the cell lumens perpendicular to the grain.

There are number of patented systems that are use in thermal modification but most tend to follow a similar pattern sequence The processs or stages involved in thermowood or thermal modification include;

Temperature increase and kiln drying

01

The air temperature in the kiln is raised at a rapid speed using heat and steam to a level of around 100 °C, the wood temperature follows at a similar level. Thereafter the temperature is increased steadily to 130 °C and drying takes place. Either green (un kilned) or ready kiln dried raw material can be used. Steam is used as a vapour membrane to prevent cracking of the wood. The steam also facilitates chemical changes taking place in the wood. At the end of this phase the moisture content is reduced to almost zero.

Intensive heat treatment

02

During the intensive heat treatment phase the air and wood temperature is increased to a level of between 185 – 225 °C. The peak temperature depends on the desired end use of the material. When the target level is reached the temperature remains constant for 2 – 3 hours. Steam is used to prevent the wood from burning and cracking and it also continues to influence the chemical changes taking place in the wood.

Cooling and moisture conditioning

03

The temperature is reduced using water spray systems. Conditioning and re-moisturising takes place to bring the wood moisture content to a workable level over 4 percent.

Thermowood Process

What determines the quality of thermal modified timber ? An number of properties of timber are enhanced / increased or reduced during the thermal modification process. Such as:

 

1. Density

The density is measured by measuring the weight and the dimensions of the sample. The unit of density is kg/m3. The ThermoWood process reduces the density by about 10 % on average.
2. Strength

Generally the strength of wood has direct correlation with density. The ThermoWood process slightly lowers the density and therefore some effects on the strength values occur, but weight-strength-value can be practically unchanged.
Bending strength and modulus of elasticity, Material treated at temperatures below 200 °C does not experience a significant loss in bending strength. A clear reduction in horizontal bending strength can be found in material treated at temperatures above 200 °C. The ThermoWood process has been found to maintain or even slightly improve the modulus of elasticity. At this stage it is recommended that ThermoWood is NOT used for horizontal load bearing structural usage.
Compression strength, The Compression strength is mainly dependent on the actual density of wood. According to tests it is has been found that the ThermoWood process has no significant effect on the compression strength values.
Splitting strength,The ThermoWood process can cause some reduction in the splitting strength depending on treatment temperature, the reduction increases as the temperature goes over 200 °C.
Screw holding strength, The screw holding strength has a strong correlation with density. The main effect on screw holding strength comes from the general variance in wood density rather than from the ThermoWood process. It was found that material with lower density has better results when narrower pre-drilled holes are used.
Surface Hardness The ThermoWood process has limited effects on the Brinell hardness properties, variance is more related to the density and the wood species being used.

4. Equilibrium moisture content

The ThermoWood process leads to a reduction in equilibrium moisture content. When treated at the highest temperatures the equilibrium moisture content can be 40-50 percent lower compared to untreated wood.
5. Stability

Because of lower equilibrium moisture content and the changes in the chemical composition of the wood the tangential and radial swelling decreases significantly compared with the original material. In some cases the reduction in dimensional movement can be as much as 40-50%.

6. Permeability

The ThermoWood process reduces the water uptake of wood, the levels may differ depending on the original wood species.

7. Thermal properties

The tests have shown that the thermal conductivity of ThermoWood is 20 - 25 percent lower compared to untreated wood, thus giving improved insulation performance.

8. Biological durability Standard tests (EN 113, ENV 807)

made in laboratory conditions have proven a significant improvement in biological durability. Improvements in biological durability are a result of the removal of natural food sources in the wood and also changes in the chemical and structural composition. Levels of resistance to fungal decay increase as higher temperatures are used. ThermoWood is recommended to be used in hazard classes 1 to 3 in accordance with EN-335-1 without the need for any further chemical protection. The treatment is throughout the wood piece and is not subject to leaching problems.

9. Weather resistance

As with most materials, ThermoWood is unable to resist the effects of ultra violet radiation. As a result, over a fairly short period of time when exposed to direct sunlight, the colour changes from the original brown appearance to a grey weathered colour. In addition the ultra violet radiation can cause small surface shakes to occur. Natural effects of rain and sun will cause some early wood to be removed from the surface, especially on un-coated boards, this occurs with all wood material over time. It is highly recommended to apply a pigment based surface protection to prevent colour changes and other natural effects of the weather, more information can be found from the Finnish ThermoWood association surface coating handbook.

Summary of the effects of the ThermoWood process on wood properties, by treatment class
Softwoods (pine and spruce) Thermo-S Thermo- D Treatment temperature 190 °C 212 °C Weather resistance + ++ Dimensional stability + ++ Bending strength no change - Colour darkness + + +

Hardwoods (birch and aspen) Thermo-S Thermo- D Treatment temperature 185 °C 200 °C Weather resistance no change + Dimensional stability + + Bending strength no change - Colour darkness + + +

Thermowood Treatment Classes

Two standard treatment classes for softwoods and for hardwoods have been introduced. These classes have been developed to take into account the key characteristics of ThermoWood, standard temperatures have been selected to ensure best overall technical  performance of the final product. The standard treatment classes are named Thermo-S (190°C +/-3°C ) and Thermo-D (212°C +/-3°C ) for softwoods, and hardwoods Thermo-S (185°C +/-3°C ) and Thermo-D (200°C +/-3°C). End use recommendations:

Softwood (pine, spruce)

Thermo-S Thermo-D

- building components - wall and ceiling panels in dry conditions - furniture - garden furniture - door and window components - sauna products - flooring - fascia boards - cladding - shutters

- cladding - fascia boards - exterior joinery - shutters - sound barriers - sauna and bathroom furnishing - decking - garden furniture - other exterior structures

Hardwood (birch, aspen)

Thermo-S Thermo-D

- wall and ceiling panels - furniture - garden furniture - flooring - sauna products

End uses of hardwood Thermo-D products are same as Thermo-S products. The colour is darker because of higher treatment temperature

In addition to standard classes it is possible to produce ThermoWood in higher or lower temperatures for special purposes. Specific treatment levels can be agreed between the ThermoWood producers and industrial customers so as to optimise the needed characteristics in relation to the end use application.

Handling and storage of ThermoWood

 General

ThermoWood must be stored in a dry place. Since no special storage temperature is required, cold warehouses are among the suitable locations. The product should be carefully covered or stored in a covered warehouse.

The packages should be stored horizontally with a sufficient number of supports under the packages to prevent the lowest boards from distortion. The packages must be stored so they do not touch the ground

Before use or further working where gluing and/or surface treatment is taking place, the material must be allowed sufficient time for conditioning to the suitable MC and temperature as per the manufacturer’s recommendations. When ThermoWood packages are lifted with a crane, forklift, or similar device, the forks should be adjusted to their maximum distance apart because of the slightly decreased bending strength of the material.

The bundles are not to be opened before use.

 Handling of residual and discarded products

ThermoWood is a natural wood product without any chemicals added to it. When not glued or painted, ThermoWood waste can be handled like any other untreated wood waste.

ThermoWood can be burned. It produces about 30% less energy than untreated wood because the majority of the energy containing extractives has already been removed in the heat-treatment process. ThermoWood burns with a smaller flame and produces less smoke and harmful gases because of the factors mentioned above. Flammability is normally better due to the lower equilibrium moisture content of the wood; i.e., the wood is drier. There is no significant difference between the compounds in smoke from ThermoWood and those in the smoke from normal wood.

Product maintenance

Different surface treatments have different maintenance intervals. The more pigment used, the longer the maintenance interval. However, if opaque paint is used, the original ThermoWood colour and appearance are obscured. As a rule of thumb, pigment-containing transparent surface treatment has a doubled or tripled maintenance interval in comparison to a treatment product without pigment. Furthermore, opaque paints have maintenance intervals twice as long as pigment-containing transparent paints.

The environment and climate have a crucial effect on the life span of a surface treatment. UV radiation from sunlight and moisture are major obstacles that must be surmounted by surface treatment. These factors mean that, for example, the south side of a building needs maintenance more often than the north side. Moreover, buildings in a continental climate have a longer life span for their surface treatment than buildings by the sea.

To ensure maximum performance of coating and avoid damages, the surfaces should be cleaned and checked annually, with any defects repaired immediately. Always refer to the paint manufacturer’s specific maintenance instructions, if available.

 Health and safety

There is no significant difference between the health and safety considerations for ThermoWood and those for normal softwood or hardwood species. There are still two detectable differences: the smell of the material and the dust resulting from the processing of ThermoWood.

ThermoWood has a smoke-like smell, which likely comes from chemical compounds called furfurals. Although the human senses can easily recognise

the smell and it appears stronger than that of untreated wood, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ThermoWood are only a fraction of those of normal pine.

There have been no toxic or harmful components found in ThermoWood. It has even been tested as a bone substitute material. However, if a wood splinter penetrates the skin, it should be removed as soon as possible, just as with normal wood.

ThermoWood dust has a smaller particle size than dust from normal softwoods. It is comparable to MDF (although the density is lower) or hardwood dust. The dust can cause problems for people suffering from asthma. For the reasons mentioned above, one has to pay special attention to the utilisation of an appropriate dust extraction system.

If the dust extraction system is not sufficient, a dust mask must be used.

When gluing or painting ThermoWood, always follow the paint or adhesive manufacturers' specific health and safety instructions.

Working Thermowood

1. Sawing Sawing of ThermoWood does not significantly differ from sawing of untreated wood. Due to the stabilisation of the wood after ThermoWood process the effect of further distortion after sawing is reduced. As the resinous substances have been removed during the ThermoWood process, the machines work well and are cleaner after processing.  Good dust extraction systems will be needed when sawing in factories.

2. Planing Standard planing equipment can be used when further processing ThermoWood.  Some care should be taken in the set up of the infeed rollers to reduce the risk of cracking the material. Excellent planed surface quality can be achieved. Best results are achieved when hard metal blade cutters are used. Similar processing parameters to planing hardwoods should be followed. Good dust extractions systems will be needed. More information is available from the Finnish ThermoWood Association planing handbook.

3. Milling In order to get a good surface quality, blades must be sharp, otherwise tearing may occur. Greater tearing is observed when the wood is milled across the grain. The highest risk of tearing occurs at the start and end of the milling. The best results are obtained when there is sufficient solid wood material behind the blade. Processing must be pre-planned carefully.

4. Sanding There is very often no need for sanding, because after planing or milling ThermoWood has an excellent surface quality. Sanding is easy and the sand paper does not become clogged up by resin. When machine sanding, good extraction systems are needed.

5. Surface treatment To prevent colour changes and other natural effects of weathering it is recommended that surface treatment is used. Oil-based substances work well and in a similar way as with untreated wood. When working with water-solvent substances it has to be taken into account that ThermoWood has a lower water absorption rate than normal wood, this can have an effect on drying time and penetration. Results are also dependent on the paint application and drying process. The paint manufacturer’s instructions should be followed. More information can be found from the Finnish ThermoWood Association surface coating handbook.

6. Gluing ThermoWood has a slower water absorption rate, high moisture content glues, such as  PVCa can take longer to dry and longer pressing times may be required. When working with PVCa glue the moisture content of the glue should be as low as possible. Two pack PVCa glues which include a chemical hardener give good results and speed up the drying time significantly. PU (polyurethane) glues work well with ThermoWood. When using PU-glues, it has to be taken into account that the hardening reaction of PU needs water. The water can be absorbed either from the wood or surrounding air. If both wood and air are very dry, gluing may fail. When gluing ThermoWood, the glue manufacturer’s specific instructions must always be referred to.

7. Mechanical joints • Screwing The ThermoWood process can reduce splitting strength of wood. The use of self-tapping screws or pre-drilling of holes must be made to avoid cracking of the material. It is recommended to use low threaded screws. It is very important to use stainless steel screws with countersunk heads for external usage or in other humid environments. • Nailing Best results are gained when using a compressed air nail gun with adjustable nailing depth on the gun. Using a normal hammer increases risk of splitting due to accidental hammer contact with the wood. It is very important to use stainless steel or other rust free nails when fixing ThermoWood outside or in humid conditions. If using a compressed air nail gun, galvanised nails can be used as no metal on metal contact occurs to break the galvanised seal. Galvanised nails are also working, if ThermoWood will be treated with covering paint after nailing. It is also recommended to use small oval head nails as this also helps to reduce the risk of splitting. Additional points when working with ThermoWood: • Sharp tools should be used to achieve best results • The dust has smaller particle size than normal wood. Special attention has to be paid to the dust extraction system and when working in confined spaces dust masks should be used.

List of standards applicable to wood modification

List of standards 

– EN 20 – 1  Wood preservatives. Determination of the protective effectiveness against Lyctus Brunneus (Stephens). Part 1: Application by surface treatment (laboratory method)

– EN 21  Wood preservatives. Determination of the toxic values against Anobium punctatum (De Geer) by larval transfer (Laboratory method) – EN 46  Wood preservatives. Determination of the preventive action against recently hatched larvae of Hylotrupes bajulus (Linnaeus) (Laboratory method)

– EN 47  Wood preservatives. Determination of the toxic values against Hylotrupes bajulus (Linnaeus) larvae (Laboratory method)

– EN 84 Wood preservatives. Accelerated ageing of treated wood prior to biological testing. Leaching procedure

– EN 113  Wood preservatives. Test method for determining the protective effectiveness against wood destroying basidiomycetes. Determination of the toxic values

– EN 117  Wood preservatives. Determination of toxic values against Reticulitermes santonensis de Feytaud (Laboratory method)

– EN 252  Field test method for determining the relative protective effectiveness of a wood preservative in ground contact

– EN 302-2  Adhesives for load-bearing timber structures; test methods; part 2: determination of resistance to delamination (laboratory method)

– EN 335 – 1  Durability of wood and wood-based products - Definition of hazard classes of biological attack - Part 1: General

– EN 335 – 2  Durability of wood and wood-based products - Definition of hazard classes of biological attack - Part 2: Application to solid wood

– EN 350 – 1  Durability of wood and wood-based products. Natural durability of solid wood. Part 1: Guide to the principles of testing and classification of the natural durability of wood

– EN 350 – 2 Durability of wood and wood-based products. Natural durability of solid wood. Part 2: Guide to natural durability and treatability of selected wood species of importance in Europe – EN 392  Glued laminated timber - Shear test glue lines – EN 408  Timber structures. Structural timber and glued laminated timber

EN 927 – 3  Paints and varnishes. Coating materials and coating systems for exterior wood. Part 3: Natural weathering test

– EN 927 – 4  Paints and varnishes. Coating materials and coating systems for exterior wood. Part 4: Assessment of the water-vapour permeability

– EN 927 – 5  Paints and varnishes. Coating materials and coating systems for exterior wood. Part 5: Assessment of the liquid water permeability

– EN 12037  Wood preservatives - Field test method for determining the relative protective effectiveness of a wood preservative exposed out of ground contact - Horizontal lap-joint method – ISO 5660 – 1  Fire tests; reaction to fire; part 1: rate of heat release from building products (cone calorimeter method)  – ISO 6341 Water quality -- Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea) -- Acute toxicity test

– ASTM D 3273  Test Method for Resistance to Growth of Mold on the Surface of Interior Coatings In an Environmental Chamber

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